1. Compare and contrast the rituals from one Western and one Eastern Indo-European culture. What elements do they have in common, if any? In what ways are they different? (minimum 300 words)
In the Agniṣṭoma, or soma ritual, we can see to what extents the Vedic people went when it came to their rituals. This specific ritual lasted 3 days and was performed by and for a man of one of the three upper castes when they wanted to do something more than their daily or seasonal sacrifices (Drury 25).
First, the site had to be prepared to certain standards. The land was advised to rise to the south so the sacrifice could not fall into that direction. On this, a shelter was built so that the sacrificer could be withdrawn from the world. Based on the location of this structure, pegs were laid out heading east, looking into the rising sun (Drury 25-26).
The sacrificer went through his own preparations that are akin to purification. These included shaving of his hair and beard, grooming of nails, bathing, and new garments. His wife was also purified and anointed by a priest. The priests and vessels were cleansed and purified every morning of the sacrifice (Drury 27). Once these preparations were done, the ritual began in earnest.
They started with the pouring of libations which would bring the sacrificer to the level of the gods. The sacrificer then became a symbolic embryo by kneeling on an animal hide, and then girded himself with a sacrificial cord. He was also given a staff to ward off evil. He was then left in meditation until sunset when he broke his fast with milk and ends his night with a prayer (Drury 27).
The next morning, the sacrificer started with prayer. He then had to fell a tree and create the stake that the animal that was being sacrificed would be tied to. Once the stake was set, a goat was brought in, tied to is, a prayer said, and purified. Grass was laid below the animal so that the blood could be caught and ritually disposed. The animal would then be killed by suffocation. The wife would then cleanse the animal to revitalize it. The animal was then dissected and parts cooked for the gods and other parts eaten by the priests and sacrificer (Drury 27-30).
With the animal sacrifice complete, the soma had to be obtained by trading a specially marked cow. The sacrificer followed the cow, and the dust from the seven footprints was collected and offered to the sacrificer and given to the wife, all indicating wealth. The wife had to then be “looked at” by the soma cow, likely a reference to a fertility ritual. The sale was then enacted following a script. The soma was eventually received as a king and wrapped in a special cloth. The soma was then pressed 3 times with the use of prayers at each pressing. The soma was then sacrificed to the named deities (Drury 30-32).
The Greek animal sacrifice was rather straight forward and done as a festive occasion for the community. The folk washed, dressed in clean clothing, and adorned various items such as garlands woven from twigs. The animal that was to be sacrificed had to be perfect, and was also adorned with garlands and ribbons. (Burkert, Ch. 2, 1.1).
A maiden then leads the procession to the stone alter, pile of stones, or ashes of previous sacrifices. The maiden would be carrying a basket of barley which concealed the sacrificial knife. Water and incense were also carried in the procession. A key thing is that the animal went along without fighting it. When the procession made it to the place of sacrifice, a circle that covered the animal and participants was delineated by the basket and the water being walked around. The ritual was then begun by first pouring water over the hands of all that were taking part and then the sacrificial animal on its head to cause it to jerk along with being offered a drink so it would appear to nod and look like it is agreeing to be sacrificed. The participants then each took some of the grains out of the basket, a prayer, invocation, wish, and a vow were spoken. The participants would then throw the grains forward onto the altar and animal (Burkert, Ch. 2, 1.1).
The sacrificer then took the knife from the basket and walked up to the animal with the knife hidden. Some hair from the animal would be cut and offered to the fire. The slaughter was then performed. For small animals they were raised in the air and the throat was cut. For larger animals like an ox, it was hit with an ax followed by the knife cutting the neck. The blood was collected and sprayed or thrown against the altar to cover it. At the same time the women would cry out (Burkert, Ch. 2, 1.1).
With the animal now dead, it was butchered. The internal organs, especially the heart and liver, were roasted first. These were given to the innermost participants and was a privilege to receive. The inedible remains and some of the meat was laid out on the pyre as if to reconstitute the animal. Food offerings were also burnt in small quantities, and the sacrificer also poured wine on the fire. Once this was all done, then the remaining meat was cooked and all was required to be consumed within the ritual boundaries. The skins of the animals were given to the sanctuary or to the priests (Burkert, Ch. 2, 1.1).
The two rituals have a lot of similarity in how they were performed. Both had a certain amount of preparation required by the participants. This included purification by things like bathing and clean or new clothing. They both also involved some kind of demarcation of the sacred space. For the Greeks, this was done by walking the grains and water around whereas for the Vedic rite, it was done with the building of a shelter and laying out of pegs. Both rites also contained vocalized prayers at some point. The sacrifice of the animal was also very similar in how it was handled. The animal was purified, and it was cooked for both the gods and for the participants.
There are some differences though. With the animal sacrifice, the ritual is over for the Greeks. The Vedic ritual continues on to eventually haggle for the purchase of “King Soma” followed by the sacrifice of the soma through pressings eventually yielding the drink. There are also striking differences in how the sacrifice of the animal is done. For the Greeks, it tended to be some kind of violent act, be it striking with an ax or slitting of the throat, and this was performed by a priest. For the Vedic, the priests kept their hands out of the actual sacrifice. The person the ritual was being done for was the sacrificer, and the animal was suffocated, then cleaned up, followed by the butchering. Both cultures had to deal with the blood of the animals with the Greeks using it to cover the altar. The Vedics also captured it, but ritually disposed of it instead of making it an undeniable focal point of the ritual.
What is probably the biggest differences though were who the ritual was performed for and the length of the ritual. For the Greek animal sacrifice, it was a public ritual, and took only part of a day, culminating with a communal meal. The Vedic soma ritual though was a more private affair involving the sacrificer, his family, and the priests. The ritual also lasted for 3 days culminating in the drinking of the soma by the sacrificer.
2. Compare and contrast ancient IE ritual elements and the elements of the ADF Core Order of Ritual. Explain why you believe the differences exist and the impact the differences may have on our modern work. (minimum 300 words)
Initiating the Rite
The purpose of the initiation of the ritual is to essentially get the group together and in a similar mindset. This is often done with some kind of musical signal, group attunement through a meditation, procession to the ritual site, and opening prayers. For the Vedics, I did not see any real connection with this process directly. What we see instead is the preparation of the site which can be considered similar to the initiation of the rite (Drury 25-26). The Greeks did do one of the things ADF considers part of this section of the ritual. They did have a procession to the ritual site (Burket, Ch. 2, 1.1).
For ADF, purification is required to be before the opening of the gates. For ADF in general it tends to be purification through water and incense, with the occasional request to leave the ego or ill will out of the ritual before the ritual really gets going. What we see for the Vedic and Greeks is that purification is a more individual thing, and happens as the very first thing. In the Vedic Soma ritual we see the sacrificer doing specific things such as shaving, grooming of nails, bathing, and donning new clothes (Drury 27). The Greek did similar in that they bathed, donned clean clothing, and wore various garlands. We also saw the purification of the ritual site by the walking of the water and grains around the site, and the throwing of the grains into the site (Burket, Ch. 2, 1.1).
Honoring the Earth Mother
Within ADF, the Earth Mother is a central part of our ritual. She is always honored first, and thanked last. We do not see this being specifically being, or her counterpart in the Sky Father, being dealt with in the Soma ritual or the general Greek ritual. At best, a tenuous connection to offerings to Gaia can be made through the pouring of libations at the rituals (Burket, Ch. 3, 3.3).
Statement of Purpose
For ADF ritual, this is an important part of the ritual because it helps align everyone's focus and purpose to a common theme. In the ancient times, this was likely not necessary. The people would be living the religion daily and would have grown up with these practices. Having the purpose being intertwined with their daily lives would make this redundant at best.
(Re)Creating the Cosmos
For ADF, since we rarely have any kind of permanent ritual site, this is done to first consecrate the ritual items as the fire, well, and tree/omphalos; then connect them to their cosmological counterpart, thus re-creating the cosmos in the ritual. When there is a permanent site that has been used many times over for only this purpose, something we see in the Greek religion and their many sacred sites, this is less of an issue as the cosmos is already there. The Vedic soma ritual though, it is being done on a site that is not a permanent site. What we see then is the physical set up of the site can be akin to the recreation of the cosmos (Drury 25-26). We can also see that the lighting of any fires in the ritual would be recreation of the cosmos in that the three fires are their representation of the cosmos (Woodard, 2.8.1)
Opening the Gate(s)
This part of the ADF ritual is not of Indo-European origins but is a modern convention. We open the gates and call on the aid of a gatekeeper for a few reasons within ADF, namely opening the ways between this world and all the other worlds, protecting us as we work our ritual, and taking our thoughts and prayers far and wide. We don't see this kind of being involved in the Greek rituals. For the Vedic rituals though, if there is fire, there is Agni, and Agni is the priest of the gods, with the purpose of bringing the sacrifices of the fire to where they need to go (Woodard, 126.96.36.199). This is fulfilling the role of the gatekeeper.
Inviting the Three Kindreds
When we invite the Kindreds in for ADF rituals, what we are doing is inviting all the spirits of the world that are aligned with the purpose of the ritual to come to the ritual. This is akin to putting a Facebook invite to an event out to all your friends. In this respect, we don't truly see any kind of invitation of all the beings to the ritual in the ancient rituals.
This is where we call on the beings of the occasion, and ask them to come join us. Other customs and works as appropriate for the ritual and season are also done during this time, but the focus is on honoring the beings of the occasion. This is also found in the ancient rituals. For the Greeks, the ritual was being performed as part of a seasonal custom and for specific beings, with prayers being said for those beings which were then followed shortly by the prayer of sacrifice (Burket, Ch. 3, 3.3). The Vedic Soma ritual also involves prayers to gods as part of the ritual and also followed up shortly by the prayer of sacrifice (Drury 27-30).
Prayer of Sacrifice
This is the big, and last, sacrifice for the beings of the occasion. For the Greeks, this was what the animal sacrifice was about, it was sacrificed to a specific being with parts being burnt as offerings (Burket, Ch. 3, 3.3). The Vedic Soma ritual also has this aspect in relation to the animal sacrifice. Here prayers to specific beings are said before the sacrifice, and parts of the sacrifice are sacrificed to those beings through burning (Drury 27-30).
Within the ADF ritual, this is where we ask if what we have done was accepted, or asking what blessings we are reviving from our sacrifices. As time has gone on, I have seen the questions move from mostly the former when I joined to mostly the latter in recent years. Within the Vedic Soma ritual, and the Greek rituals, we don't see any strong evidence that omens were taken.
- Calling (asking) for the Blessings
- Hallowing the Blessing
Affirmation of the Blessing
The calling for, hallowing, and affirmation of the blessing is the turning point of the ADF ritual. This is when we go from giving to the powers to the powers giving to us. It is a three part process in that we call or ask the powers to give us blessings, have them fill the water/liquid, and then after we receive the blessings we affirm that we have received it. The Vedic Soma ritual contains a good example of this in that the soma is made in the ritual through pressings, with prayers being part of the pressings, and ending with the drinking of the soma (Drury, 30-32).
Workings (if any)
Within ADF, the workings are usually an additional thing that often does not have any direct connection to the beings called, or the seasonal purpose of the ritual. These often include things like healing work, initiations, unity work, and even things like seidhr. In the ancient world, we are more likely to see multiple rituals, and more often rituals, than to see rituals that were done for multiple purposes. The Vedic soma rituals were specifically for the receiving and drinking of soma and gaining all the advantages that came with that. The Greek rituals similarly were to honor the being that was being called.
- Thanking the Beings
- Closing the Gate(s)
- Thanking the Earth Mother
Closing the Rite
All four of these, the thanking of beings, closing of the gates, thanking the Earth Mother, and closing the rite all go hand in hand. In ADF we treat the beings like guests at our house, and it is just appropriate for us to thank them for coming, as we part ways. We also put things back as they were before we left, and this includes closing the gates. Finally, we close our rituals by returning what was left unused to the Earth Mother and often will close with a prayer or song. The sources I have for the Greek and Vedic rituals don't give much details of the closing of the ritual. What can be gleaned from the Agniṣṭoma ritual is that the final sacrifices as the ritual is closed are to Agni (Woodard, 2.6.1).
3. Compose an ADF-style ritual, following the Core Order of Ritual, using as many elements as possible from one of the four cultural ritual traditions. (no minimum word count).
This ritual was written for BTW 2015 as a Delphic Oracle ritual. The format is loosely based on the Greek animal sacrifice ritual with the additional ADF parts that are not found in the ancient ritual. The “animal” to be sacrifice will be a loaf of bread that will be declared a bull before it is “butchered” with the knife that was hidden in the grains. The idea behind the divergence after the blessed waters is looking both to history and to practicality with working with multiple seers. Historically, Delphi was a journey, and trip between ritual sites signifies that journey to Delphi. Traditionally, the question was asked of the priest, and the priest played go between. In this ritual, the person with the question will ask the seer directly, which is the modern practice within the seidhr community. The other ritual site, going into “spontaneous pagan mayhem” is all about distracting the participants, giving them something to do over the hour or more that they have to hold space. I honestly am not sure how well this will work, and it is an experiment. I am hoping with a good ritual crew doing the ritual parts that this can be pulled off.
Initiating the Rite – Temple
Close your eyes. Take a deep breath in... and out. Again, in.... and out. See yourself as a tree, with your feet being your roots, and your arms your branches. With your roots, start pushing downwards. Through the floor, through the foundation. Go into the ground, the moist dark earth. Keep going down and feel the earth move to your will. As you go down, you will find stones, and boulders, go around them as you search for the cool waters deep in the earth.
As you reach these waters, draw them up into your body. Feel the cool water climb up your roots and into your feet. Feel them fill your legs, your loins.... draw them up into your belly, your chest. Feel them fill your whole body with the energies of the deep. Feel them spill out the top of your head, the palms of your hands, and pour back onto the earth.
Now turn your attention to the sky. High above you is a star of your own, shining down on you. Reach up to the start with your branches. Grow them up into the sky. Reach up and gather the light from the star. Feel the light coming down, into your arms, into you head. Feel the light fill your body. Feel it mingle with the waters. The light of order mixing with the waters of chaos. Filling you with energy from above and below. Take a moment, and rejoice in the power.
It is now time to release the energy. Hold on to the energy you need, and release the rest. Send the light back up to the sky. Send the water back into the ground. Pull your root and branches back in. Know you can tap into these powers when you need to. Take a deep breath in... and out.... in.... and out... and when you are ready, open your eyes.
Basket of grain and bowl of water are walked around the ritual site. The participants will then “wash” their hands and follow the person carrying the basket of grain into the site. The basket will be walked around one more time and everyone would take a handful of the grains. When everyone has the grains, the Druid in Charge will signal them to cry out and throw the grains into the ritual site.
Earth Mother - Jeff
Earth Mother, Gaia! You who surround and support us. As we approach the last harvest, and the turning of the wheel towards fall, we give you honor. You surround and support us throughout the year. Without your bounty, we would not survive. Without you, we would not be here. For all that you do for us, we honor you. Accept this sacrifice as a token of our appreciation. Earth Mother, Gaia, Khaire!
Muses – Otter
Daughters of Jove, dire-sounding and divine,
Renown'd Pierian, sweetly speaking Nine;
To those whose breasts your sacred furies fire
Much-form'd, the objects of supreme desire:
Sources of blameless virtue to mankind,
Who form to excellence the youthful mind;
Who nurse the soul, and give her to descry
The paths of right with Reason's steady eye.
Commanding queens who lead to sacred light
The intellect refin'd from Error's night;
And to mankind each holy rite disclose,
For mystic knowledge from your nature flows.
Clio, and Erato, who charms the sight,
With thee Euterpe minist'ring delight:
Thalia flourishing, Polymina fam'd,
Melpomene from skill in music nam'd:
Terpischore, Urania heav'nly bright,
With thee who gav'st me to behold the light.
Come, venerable, various, pow'rs divine,
With fav'ring aspect on your mystics shine;
Bring glorious, ardent, lovely, fam'd desire,
And warm my bosom with your sacred fire.
Orphic hymn LXXV. TO THE MUSES: http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hoo/hoo80.htm
Muses all! Give us silvered tongues. Aid the seers in their work tonight. Muses, Khaire!
Statement of Purpose – Temple
We are here tonight to do a Delphic Oracle. We are here to Honor Apollo. We are here to celebrate him and to ask for his wisdom in return. First though, let us hallow our hallows.
Hallowing the Hallows - Temple
The well is our connection to the underworld, our connection to our ancestors, and our connection to the Chthonic gods and goddesses. As we give to this well, we say: Sacred waters, flow within us!
The fire is our connection to the upperworlds, our connection to the shining ones, and has the power to transform and take our offerings where they are needed. As we give to this fire we say: Sacred fire, burn within us!
The omphalos is the center of the worlds, a mighty stone that marks where the eagles met, and our road to travel the worlds. As we give to this stone, we say: Sacred stone, be strong with us!
Gatekeeper – Temple
Hermes I call, whom Fate decrees to dwell
In the dire path which leads to deepest hell
O Bacchic Hermes, progeny divine
Of Dionysius, parent of the vine,
And of celestial Venus Paphian queen,
Dark eye-lash'd Goddess of a lovely mien:
Who constant wand'rest thro' the sacred feats
Where hell's dread empress, Proserpine, retreats;
To wretched souls the leader of thc way
When Fate decrees, to regions void of day:
Thine is the wand which causes sleep to fly,
Or lulls to slumb'rous rest the weary eye;
For Proserpine thro' Tart'rus dark and wide
Gave thee forever flowing souls to guide.
Come, blessed pow'r the sacrifice attend,
And grant our mystic works a happy end.
Orphic hymn LVI, To the terrestrial Hermes http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hoo/hoo61.htm
Hermes! Aid us as our gatekeeper. Help us open the ways. Guard us as we walk the ancient roads. Take our messages far and wide, and bring back what we need to hear. Hermes, Khaire!
Now, great magician, join your powers with mine. Let the well open as a gate to the underworlds. Let the fire open as a gate to the upperworlds. Let the omphalos be the center of it all, and be our roads through all the worlds. Let the gates be open!
Shining Ones – Mario
Gods and Goddesses of Elder Days! You who each of us call our patrons and matrons, we offer you welcome. You who look over our lives and our grove, we offer you welcome. All of you, known or unknown to us, we offer you welcome. We call on you to aid us and guide us in our works this evening. Watch over the seers as they do their work, and assist them if they need assistance. Come, Join us at our fire. Shining Ones, Khaire!
Land Spritis - Jeff
Land Spirits! You who live among us. Those of fur and feather, scale and skin, we offer you welcome. Stick and stem, leaf and flower, we offer you welcome. All those seen and unseen, the Nyads and Druads, all of you spirits of the land and sea, we offer you welcome. We call on you to aid us and guide us in our works this evening. Watch over the seers as they do their work, and assist them if they need assistance. Come, Join us at our fire. Land Spirits, Khaire!
Ancestors – Drake
Ancestors! You who have walked this land before us. You who are part of our lineage, we offer you welcome. You who are friends and allies, we offer you welcome. You who walked this very land, we offer you welcome. We call on you to aid us and guide us in our works this evening. Watch over the seers as they do their work, and assist them if they need assistance. Come, Join us at our fire. Ancestors, Khaire!
Apollo - Mario
Blest Pæan, come, propitious to my pray'r,
illustrious pow'r, whom Memphian tribes revere,
Slayer of Tityus, and the God of health,
Lycorian Phœbus, fruitful source of wealth .
Spermatic, golden-lyr'd, the field from thee
Receives it's constant, rich fertility.
Titanic, Grunian, Smynthian, thee I sing,
Python-destroying, hallow'd, Delphian king:
Rural, light-bearer, and the Muse's head,
Noble and lovely, arm'd with arrows dread:
Far-darting, Bacchian, two-fold, and divine,
Pow'r far diffused, and course oblique is thine.
O, Delian king, whose light-producing eye
Views all within, and all beneath the sky:
Whose locks are gold, whose oracles are sure,
Who, omens good reveal'st, and precepts pure:
Hear me entreating for the human kind,
Hear, and be present with benignant mind;
For thou survey'st this boundless æther all,
And ev'ry part of this terrestrial ball
Abundant, blessed; and thy piercing sight,
Extends beneath the gloomy, silent night;
Beyond the darkness, starry-ey'd, profound,
The stable roots, deep fix'd by thee are found.
The world's wide bounds, all-flourishing are thine,
Thyself all the source and end divine:
'Tis thine all Nature's music to inspire,
With various-sounding, harmonising lyre;
Now the last string thou tun'ft to sweet accord,
Divinely warbling now the highest chord;
Th' immortal golden lyre, now touch'd by thee,
Responsive yields a Dorian melody.
All Nature's tribes to thee their diff'rence owe,
And changing seasons from thy music flow
Hence, mix'd by thee in equal parts, advance
Summer and Winter in alternate dance;
This claims the highest, that the lowest string,
The Dorian measure tunes the lovely spring .
Hence by mankind, Pan-royal, two-horn'd nam'd,
Emitting whistling winds thro' Syrinx fam'd;
Since to thy care, the figur'd seal's consign'd,
Which stamps the world with forms of ev'ry kind.
Hear me, blest pow'r, and in these rites rejoice,
And save thy mystics with a suppliant voice.
Orphic hymn XXXIII, To Apollo http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hoo/hoo38.htm
Apollo, we call on you to aid us and guide us in our works this evening. Watch over the seers as they do their work, and assist them if they need assistance. Come, Join us at our fire. Apollo, Khaire!
Open ritual for sacrifices to Apollo
Prayer of Sacrifice – Temple
Mighty Kinderd! Apollo! We give to you once more. Behold the sacred bull! Sacrifice with the knife found in the grains. We give you half and ask that you all watch over our seers and aid them in their work tonight. The other half, we will share and seal this bargain with you. Kindred, Apollo, Khaire!
Omen – Mario?
Omens are pulled asking what blessings we receive.
Blessing of the Waters – Otter
Ancient and Mighty ones. We have given to you and in the tradition of *Ghosti- a gift deserves a gift. Fill these waters with the omens we have just heard, and fill us with their powers as we drink the waters. Kindred, Give us the Waters! Behold, the Waters of Life!
After the waters are drunk, or sprinkled depending on the size of the ritual… Drake will go to the second site where the seers are and spend the rest of the ritual watching over them to make sure they stay safe.
Directions given to the attendees – Mario
We will now be doing something a little different. In this circle, we will be singing, dancing, drumming, and keeping the energy up in celebration, and as a sacrifice to Apollo. Those of you that have questions though, I (we?) will bring you back to the seers individually. When you are ready to go ask a question, please come over to (points out location) and we will walk you down, and bring you back.
At this point, the ritual diverges into two parts. In the main ritual site, 'spontaneous pagan mayhem' will take place. The purpose of this is to both to maintain the ritual energy and to distract the attendees from the long period of nothing happening in the main ritual location.
In the second site, the seers will be set up with Drake and possibly a second person, looking over them making sure they stay safe. Set up in the second site will be a fire, and a basket of grains. The general outline for what is done is this:
The querent gets escorted to a seer and has time to ask their question(s). When the question is done, they will be met and asked to make a sacrifice of the grains to the fire to accept what they have heard. They will then be escorted back to the main ritual.
When the allotted time is up or there are no further questions, the seers will be told to return to themselves. They will then be given water, and escorted to the main ritual site.
Apollo – Mario
Apollo! You have aided us in our works this evening, you have helped the seer to find the answers to the questions that were asked. For all you have done, Apollo, We Thank You.
Ancestors – Drake
Ancestors, you have aided us in our works this evening, you have helped the seer to find the answers to the questions that were asked. For all you have done we say, Thank you.
Land Spirits – Jeff
Land Spirits, you have aided us in our works this evening, you have helped the seer to find the answers to the questions that were asked. For all you have done we say, Thank you.
Shining Ones – Mario
Shining Ones, you have aided us in our works this evening, you have helped the seer to find the answers to the questions that were asked. For all you have done we say, Thank you.
Gatekeeper – Temple
Hermes, you have aided us in our works this evening, you have helped the seer to find the answers to the questions that were asked. For all you have done we say, Thank you. Now, once more join your magic with mine, and aide us in closing the gates. Let the well become water. Let the fire become flame. Let the omphalos become a stone once more. Let the Gates be Closed!
Muses – Otter
Muses all, you have aided us in our works this evening, you have given us silvered tongues, and you have helped the seer to find the answers to the questions that were asked. For all you have done we say, Thank you.
Earth Mother – Jeff
Earth Mother, you have aided us in our works this evening, you have helped the seer to find the answers to the questions that were asked. For all you have done we say, Thank you. As is our tradition, we return to you all that is left unused.
Closing – Temple
Go now, Children of Earth in wisdom and peace. This rite is ended.
Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion Archaic and Classical. Trans. John Raffan. Maiden MA: Blackwell Publishing, 1985. Kindle file
Drury, Naama. The Sacrifical Ritual in the Śatapatha Brahmaṇa. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1981. Print
Woodard, Roger D. Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. 2006. Kindle file